High-Rise Smoke Control: There are two types of smoke control and smoke ventilation systems: Active- which utilizes fans duct, HVAC units and other mechanical equipment to ventilate smoke from a building to a predetermined habitable level. Passive- Used compartmentalization, reservoirs, or other methods to control smoke. Smoke control systems are not designed to completely remove smoke from a building. Firemen control panels for smoke control systems are usually located at the fire command center and should include a manual override of automatic systems. It's important not to confuse these 2 different systems (Control vs Ventilation). Conducting high-rise district building familiarization is important.
Elevator Use During Fire: An 8 year study of 179 major fires in buildings where elevators were present revealed that elevators failed at 59 fires. That's one-third of the major fires. Fire, heat and water caused electrical malfunctions in those elevators.
ABOVE: High winds coming off the coastline are to be expected. The wind direction here and the apartments location actually pushed this fire out the window as a pose to pushing it towards the public hallway into the faces of advancing firemen.
TIP: With at least 138 lbs of pressure on the handle, the Hydra-Ram is capable of putting more than 10,000 lbs of force at or on an object. You’ll typically get 7-8 pumps before reaching its full extension. (Hydra-Ram is not the same as a Rabbit Tool)
TRASH CHUTES, COMPACTORS, INCINERATOR FIRES
INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE: This discussion regarding building height leads to the prime question: at what height is a building considered a high-rise? A high-rise building is defined in Chapter 2 of the IBC as a “building with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.” Unlike the standard building height dimension regulated by the IBC, the height for determining a high-rise building is determined by two different points of measurement: 1) the lowest level of fire vehicle access and 2) the highest occupied floor. What's considered a high-rise will also depend on the region, department, jurisdiction, or local building codes, despite the IBC definition. Some departments recognize a high-rise as any building out of the reach of an aerial ladder to a six story building (mid-rise).
High-rise training video by the KCFD.
Watch the fire growth during an average reflex time in a high-rise apartment fire.
Wind-driven fire testing conducted in N.Y.
Engine Captain killed in wind-driven apartment fire.
TIP: In addition to chocks, carry strips of rope (or bungee cords) for securing doors. These inexpensive pieces of rope are great for securing residential screen and commercial stairwell doors when you want the door open just enough for the line to get through without being pinched. Several pieces can fit in the cargo pockets of bunker gear without taking up space or adding weight. Cut the ropes in lengths of 4 and 5 ft, tie a bowline or figure 8 on a bite at one end, add a cheap carabineer on the running end. Using an inexpensive simple tool like a chock/rope makes operations much easier.
There may be circumstances where hooking up on the fire floor is the only option. This wasn't one of them. A flashover in the hallway forced crews to abandon the hoseline and retreat.
REMEMBER: Not all reported high-rise fires will be inside the building or on an upper floor. Fires can start in attached occupancies such as underground parking garages, subdivision mechanical rooms, roof top air handlers, shafts and chutes.
TIP: When advancing a handline down a long hallway with low or zero visibility, try and keep the line taut and stay in contact with that line. If a hostile event occurs or the low air alarm is sounding, following that hoseline will lead right back to the enclosed stairwell for safety. If too much line is flaked into the hallway, it will make following that 'maze' line out much more difficult.
Familiarization of stairwells will help determine which is best for attack versus evacuation. Know which stairwells have standpipe connections, which ones are open, enclosed, scissor, return etc.. Click here for common types of stairwells and fire escapes.
During high-rise preplans, observe low-rise buildings in the area from the roof. Locate their roof access and skylights for ventilation. Look for holes, heavy equipment, solar panels, billboards, water buildup, HVAC units etc..
Are residents better off staying in their heavyweight fire-resistive high-rise apartments or walking down 20 stories in stairwells full of smoke while firemen are trying to shuttle up equipment and hook up their line?
PARKING GARAGES: Fires in parking garages under high-rises pose a serious problem. PARKING GARAGES CLICK HERE
Trash compactor fire directly behind a department store.
Trash chute hopper doors are usually enclosed and located in hallway closets.
The emergency shutoff for compactors are clearly visible on most compactors.
Alarm activations with smoke conditions in numerous locations will send firemen to multiple floors trying to locate the source. Checking the trash chute hopper doors in the hallways on each floor can determine if the smoke is coming from the the compactor room below, in addition to an odor of burning garbage. Most compactor rooms have sprinklers directly above them (activated sprinkler is an indicator when reading the alarm panel) but smoke and carbon monoxide can still fill the upper floors. Have a company check out the compactor room. Most alarm panels will identify activation in compacter-chute room.
Some compactors are simply dumpsters with wheels that can be rolled out onto a nearby loading dock and extinguished, but MOST are heavily secured commercial compactors that will need to be extinguished in place. Working around compactor machines can be very dangerous as they can lead to crush injuries. Secure the power AND movementof a compactor and be careful where you place pike poles/hooks arms and hands when attempting to remove blockage in the compactor/chute.
INCINERATORS are supposed to burn. The problem with incinerators is excessive garbage blocking the trash chute on an upper floor preventing the smoke from exiting the chimney. The smoke then banks down from the blockage point and starts exiting through the hopper doors on each hallway floor below. To located the blockage, check the lower floors/chutes and work your way up until there's no smoke exiting from the hopper doors. The blockage will be below that location. If the trash cannot be dislodged with a pole/hook/chain or by other means, try igniting newspaper/trash and sending it down on top of the trash bag to ignite it and disintegrate it, clearing the blockage.
WHAT ARE THE CHANCES?This fire in was intensified by a fire pump that was turned off in addition to a frozen FDC supplied by the pumper. Firemen encountered heavy fire inside the apartment and had no pressure from the standpipe. A 2 1/2 line was stretched from the street. Always have a plan B...
ESTIMATING THE STRETCH for high-rise fires isn't that difficult. There's room for excess hose because we are stretching from the stairwells most of the time which gives us a few landings and a few flights of stairs to flake excess hose. Don't always assume that there's going to be a long hallway leading to the fire apartment when estimating the stretch. Imagine deploying 150 ft of hose from the high-rise pack, flaking it down the stairs and charging the line off the standpipe only to discover the fire apartment is directly across the hall from the stairwell. Take a look down the hallway and decide if you're only going to need a 50-75' section or the entire 150' to reach the furthest room inside the fire apartment.
RECON: It's not always necessary to recon the floor below the fire. If the building occupant is telling the fire department that the fire started in their apartment which is 17B and the alarm panel has activations from the 17th floor on up, there's a good chance it's apartment 17B. If the hallway conditions are tenable and visibility is clear enough to locate the fire apartment, there's no need to recon the floor below UNLESS there's a need to check wind direction. Opening the window of an apartment on the floor below the fire to check wind conditions is beneficial when checking for potential wind-driven fires, but it's also very time consuming if you can even access an apartment. The reflex time for high-rise fires is already long enough, so try to obtain wind direction from the IC or when approaching the entrance to the building after arrival. Cracking a hallway window on the fire floor (if present) is quick and effective.
If there's poor visibility on the fire floor the officer can take a minute to recon the floor below to determine the location of the apartment, distance and layout. The rest of the crew should be preparing for the standpipe stretch.
TIP: If the stretch from the floor below to the fire apartment will not reach, and the hallway is clear (fire apartment door is closed) it may be a better strategy to hook up on the fire floor standpipe to reach the apartment. Apply water faster = better...
In many cities, the Ladder Company will recon the fire floor using a thermal imaging camera. The fire apartment will have high heat registering around (top) the door frame. They will also force the fire door and refuge apartment door if needed.
AIR HANDLING UNITS- CLICK HERE
PRESSURE REGULATING DEVICES are pressure-restricting devices, pressure-reducing valves, and pressure control devices that are designed for the purpose of regulating, controlling or restricting water pressure in order to limit standpipe outlet pressure in flowing conditions. In 1991 after the tragic One Meridian Plaza fire in Philadelphia PA, these regulating devices became an essential part of high-rise operations and many in the fire service starting recognizing these devices as a serious problem. For more on PRD's, PRC's, PRV's - CLICK BELOW
REMEMBER: There are still many ordinary constructed unprotected high-rises and mid-rises, especially in older cities and historic districts. In 4-8 story multi-family structures, it's common to stretch 2 1/2 lines up the center stairwell or exterior (fire escapes) to the floor below (portable standpipe operation).
TIP: Stairwells from the fire floor up to the roof must be searched during and after the fire. Many people actually believe that if they can get to the roof they will be rescued by a helicopter, which is highly unlikely. They may be overcome by smoke when they realize the bulkhead door is locked or that the stairwell they climbed doesn't even lead to the roof.
Incredible video showing the intensity of a wind-driven fire.
When it comes to high-rise buildings, the wind will most likely be stronger on the upper floors and along coastlines. Companies arriving on scene at a reported high-rise fire could have slight wind conditions at the ground level, but upon arriving to the 28th floor they are met with strong wind conditions blowing fire out of the open apartment door into the public hallway.
Firemen must be prepared for 'blowtorch' fire conditions in high-rise fires on the windward side of the building, especially if the windows in the fire apartment fail due to fire, left open by fleeing occupants or prematurely vented by firemen.
Door control is also very important, but if the fleeing occupants left the door open, the fire will enter the hallway continuing a dangerous flow path fire that can reach temperatures of 2,500° F. Taking a fire with that intensity HEAD ON with a 150-180 GPM line will be difficult if not impossible. Recognize the warning signs of a wind-driven fire. Reduce the flow path by controlling the doors and coordinating with the vent team. These wind-driven fires can occur with gusts as low as 10-15 MPH.
By simply chocking or tying a door off can, you can save your life. Baltimore City LODD.
TIP: When arriving at the fire apartment door, don't just crack the nozzle to bleed the air out of the line, FLOW the line for several seconds. This will ensure that you flush out any sediment and ensure an adequate stream before entering the apartment. Opening the line up only to discover the stream is 'pissing' on the fire as it rolls out into the hallway over your head will have you retreating. There may be a problem with water pressure caused by PRD's, FDC's, the fire pump or the standpipe.
TIP: For high-rise fires use a smooth bore nozzle (or a break-away). In addition to a better stream and less friction loss it allows the debri and sediment from inside standpipe risers to get flushed out. This should also be done at the outlet if possible. Make sure before entering the fire apartment, flake any excess hose on the hinge side of the inward swinging apartment door to keep it from catching or closing behind you.
REMEMBER: If tenable, RECON the fire floor to estimate the stretch, select the best attack stairwell and check overall conditions. Take the extra 30 seconds to get it right. Below are some notable high-rise fires that make good training videos.
Many firemen have been killed and seriously injured in high-rise fires as a result of wind-driven fires, disorientation in dead-end hallways AND by taking elevators directly to the fire floor during alarm activations. See VIDEO's.
DANGERS: Firemen face many of the dangers fighting a high-rise fire as they would a basement or multi-family low rise fire. These include flashover, ceiling collapse, heat exhaustion, steam burns, difficult stretches and disorientation in dead end hallways. But we must also consider the following:
FALLEN GLASS: Windows in high-rises are thick and heavy. Large shards of glass falling down 20-30 stories can kill civilians on the ground AND thepump operator at the FDC. Venting windows in MOST high-rise fires is not recommended and dangerous. Firemen have no control over a window breaking on its own from the fire, which is why the IC should immediately assign a safety officer to keep the street/sidewalk area under the fire side of the building clear of onlookers. There are some situations and conditions where you can vent the windows in a high-rise fire such as the presence of outside balconies or setbacks or if the sidewalk/street area has been closed off preventing anyone from walking into the hazard area. If the glass is going to land on a nearby buildings roof, it's safe to break a window. Most modern high-rise buildings have impact-resistant glass which is extremely difficult to break. A key or wrench is needed to open them.
ELEVATORS: Assign a firefighter familiar with phase 1 and 2 operations to the elevator control position. Recall the elevators if not already done automatically. Never take elevators directly to the reported fire/alarm floor or a subdivision. If you're not sure of the fire floor, don't take the risk. See videos below of Firemen and Police Officers who have lost their lives taking elevators directly to the fire floor. Be aware of open elevator shafts when crawling down hallways in poor visibility conditions. Do NOT get in the elevator if the fire helmet is flashing. The shunt trip breaker has tripped and will stop the elevator.
Flashing helmet identifies a shunt trip. A heat detector activation (or water) in the hoistway or EMR will shut down the mainline power prior to a sprinkler activation trapping firemen inside with no control. They will have to force their way out.
WIND DRIVEN FIRES:The biggest danger of fighting an upper floor high-rise fire is a wind-driven fire pushing the inferno down the public hallway like a blowtorch. Described as 'blowtorch' fires by the firemen who survived these incidents, they are caused by strong winds entering the fire apartment through open or broken windows, driving the intensified fire through the open apartment door into the public hallway over the members of the hose team.Watch the videos below on wind driven fires. (Flow paths)
ENTRAPMENT:In residential high-rise fires, firemen have become lost/disoriented in dead end hallways, ceiling collapses, bathrooms, trash chute and janitor closets. While crawling around in commercial buildings, especially core construction, it's easy to get tangled up in wires from the plenum space above a suspended ceiling or below a floor in addition to the many partitions, computer equipment, power strips-cords, desks and chairs in an office building.
Credit previous high-rise fires for the current building codes, sprinkler systems, standpipes, enclosed stairwells, improved alarm systems, elevator recall, command centers, improved safety and training for the members of the modern day fire service.
Fires is high-rise buildings present serious challenges for first due companies who are often met with dangerous conditions on the fire floor and above as reflex time allows the fire and smoke to grow and spread. There are an average of fifty high-rise fires a day in the U.S. resulting in fifty fatalities annually. Most high rises are fire-resistive structures, but almost half of existing occupied high-rise apartments, hotels and commercial buildings do NOT have a sprinkler system.
There's a long list of dangers to consider when fighting a high-rise fire. When companies are dispatched to an alarm activation in a high-rise, the company officers will focus on getting to the alarm panel to see what it's indicating and then investigates what's most likely to be a careless cooking, or a pull station nuisance alarm. When the call comes in for a confirmed working fire in a high-rise with numerous calls or smoke visible from the street, a more intense and careful thought process takes over. In addition to size-up, proper apparatus placement, getting the knox box keys, locating the FDC, alarm panel, making sure the crew is on the correct operating channel and armed with the proper equipment, manyadditional concerns will need to be addressed before you even reach the fire location. In most cases, firemen will be familiar with the building from prior alarms, EMS calls, elevator removals, surveys, inspections, preplans etc.. When arriving at a high-rise fire, some considerations for firemen and company officers apply:
*LOCATION OF THE FIRE: Looking up at the exterior from at least two sides and checking for visible fire or smoke or flashing lights from alarm strobes will be an indicator. People out on balconies or open windows waving their arms. As you approach the building are there fleeing occupants or security giving you any information as to the fire floor? Head to the alarm panel and verify the location of any alarm activations and relay that information to the IC.
*OCCUPANCY AND TIME OF DAY: This information is important for any LIFE HAZARD. A residential high rise at 2am or a commercial occupancy at 2pm on a Tuesday will most likely be occupied. The time of day and occupancy play a key role in rescue efforts. Searching and evacuating the fire floor and floors above are still the priority.
*WEATHER:This will determine any stack/reverse stack effect and the potential for wind-driven fires. If strong winds are present from the ground, they could be much stronger on the 40th floor. If fire is showing on the windward side of the building, the hose team may have fire blowing them out into the public hallway way when they open the door to the fire apartment.
*HVAC AND ELEVATORS:Check the status of the HVAC/elevators. Request a building representative or locate one on scene. Does the HVAC need to be shut down? Check the status of the elevators and assign a fireman to the elevator control position. If the elevators are not automatically recalled to the lobby, do so with the key (Phase 1). The elevator keys should be in the knox box. REMEMBER to use 'Firemen Service' elevators only. If the fire is reported below the 8th floor, take the stairs. Above the 8th floor, take the elevators two floors below the CONFIRMED fire location. Always check the shaft for smoke/water and flashing helmet on the display panel before using an elevator. Identify elevators servicing a blind shaft and elevators that service only the floors ABOVE the fire.
*FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS: Does the building have sprinklers/standpipes? Does the FDC connection supply both? Be familiar with the stairwells where the risers are located. If the building is not protected by sprinklers/standpipes or they are out of service, notify the IC immediately. Be familiar with pump room locations, wet/dry systems and supplying first floor standpipes if a problem with the FDC occurs. Are there PRD's? Does the public address system work?
*STAIRWELL TYPES AND LOCATIONS: Knowledge of the stairwell types and their locations are critical. Stairwells may be located on only one end of the building leaving a dead end hallway on the other. Some stairwells are only located in the center of the building while others only service certain floors and may not even have a standpipe riser. Determine the type of stairwell (scissor, straight, open center well, return, access, enclosed). Scissor stairs can be difficult for new firefighters making a connection below the fire floor. Check stairwells for identification (A, B or 1, 2) when assigning an attack/evacuation/vent stairwell. Determine which stairwell leads to the roof bulkhead door.We try not to send fleeing occupants down a stairwell that is being used for attack/ventilation. MORE ON STAIRWELLS CLICK HERE
*REFLEX TIME: From the time companies are dispatched until the time water is applied to the fire in a high-rise can average anywhere from 10-30 minutes. With fire doubling in size every 30 seconds, consider the time the fire actually started until reaching the fire with a charged hoseline. That 's your reflex time! Watch VIDEO on fire growth during reflex time.
*PROPER TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MANPOWER: Before heading up to the fire floor, request spare bottles to be shuttled up to the staging area below the fire. Radio traffic will be a nightmare, so prepare for high traffic and use radio discipline. Ensure you have severaldoor chocks, rope/webbing as they can be your most important tool in a high-rise fire. Ladder company tools should be hydraulic ram/force entry tools/irons, rope, flashlight, TIC, water can, bolt cutters. Engine company brings aproperly equipped high-rise pack (pictured below) with a smooth bore or 'breakaway' nozzle, TIC, chocks, flashlight, and wire cutters (plenum-wires).
Seven injured in Toronto high-rise fire.
Commercial building, Houston TX
High-rise fire in commercial building, hair salon. Six civilians jump to their death.
Residential high-rise in Los Angeles CA.
Residential high-rise, Manhattan NY. Civilian death trapped in elevator.
Galaxy Tower, Long Beach CA. Residential, civilian jumpers.
1st Interstate Bank, LAFD. Part 2 of 2.
1st Interstate Bank Fire, Los Angeles. Part 1 or 2.
One Meridian Plaza, under construction, Philadelphia. Three firemen killed.